Entries in the table below define the symbols used in the development of the mathematical model of flight dynamics.

Symbol |
Description |

Orthogonal unit vectors along the axes of the Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed (ECEF) frame of reference | |

Orthogonal unit vectors along the axes of North-Oriented, Local-Level (NOLL) frame of reference | |

Orthogonal unit vectors along theaxes of the Velocity-Oriented (VO) frame of reference | |

Orthogonal unit vectors along theaxes of the Body-fixed frame of reference | |

Rotation operator that transforms vectors expressed relative to the North-Oriented, Local-Level (NOLL) frame of reference to equivalent vectors relative to the Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed (ECEF) frame | |

Rotation operator that transforms vectors expressed relative to the Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed (ECEF) frame of reference to equivalent vectors relative to the North-Oriented, Local-Level (NOLL) frame | |

Rotation operator that transforms vectors expressed relative to the Velocity-Oriented (VO) frame of reference to equivalent vectors relative to the North-Oriented, Local-Level (NOLL) frame | |

Rotation operator that transforms vectors expressed relative to the North-Oriented, Local-Level (NOLL) frame of reference to equivalent vectors relative to the Velocity (VO) frame | |

Rotation operator that transforms vectors expressed relative to the Body-fixed (BODY) frame of reference to equivalent vectors relative to the Velocity-Oriented (VO) frame | |

Rotation operator that transforms vectors expressed relative to the Velocity-Oriented (VO) frame of reference to equivalent vectors relative to the Body-fixed (BODY) frame | |

Earth rate | |

Aerodynamic lift | |

Commanded lift | |

Aerodynamic drag | |

Engine thrust as a function of time | |

Commanded thrust | |

Total force acting at the aircrafts center of gravity | |

Component of total force parallel to the aircrafts velocity vector | |

Component of total force normal to the aircrafts velocity vector | |

m, m(t) | Instantaneous aircraft mass |

Mass of the fully loaded aircraft | |

Aircraft position at time, t, relative to the Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed (ECEF) frame | |

h | Aircraft altitude |

Aircraft roll angle | |

Aircraft pitch angle | |

Yaw | |

True aircraft heading | |

Magnetic aircraft heading | |

Desired heading | |

Commanded heading | |

Flight path angle | |

Acceleration due to gravity at a distance, r, from the earths center | |

Flight path angle | |

Commanded flight path angle | |

Desired flight path angle | |

Geodetic Latitude | |

Geodetic Longitude | |

Aircraft's earth relative velocity | |

Commanded speed | |

Desired speed | |

Groundspeed | |

True airspeed | |

Indicated airspeed | |

Mach number | |

T, T(h) | Ambient air temperature as a function of altitude, h |

Static air pressure as a function of altitude, h | |

Stagnation or total air pressure as measured by a Pitot-Static system | |

Air density as a function of altitude, h | |

Air density with corresponding pressure | |

Speed of sound in air as a function of altitude |